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Special Collections in the History of Medicine

Harrison Stanford Martland, MD (1883-1954)
A Register of  His Papers, 1905-1954

Revised April 1999
PC/1
79-02, 90-30, 94-22


INTRODUCTION

Harrison Stanford Martland, MDThe papers of Harrison Stanford Martland, MD date from 1905 to 1954, with bulk dates from the 1920s to the late 1940s. The records total approximately 3 linear feet. They form Personal Collection PC/1 in the Special Collections' Bergen University Archives. The records are open for research without restriction under the conditions of the Archives' access policy.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Harrison Stanford Martland, the son of Dr. William Henry and Ida (Carlyle) Martland, was born in Newark on September 10, 1883. Harrison Martland received a BS degree from Western Maryland College in 1901. After receiving his MD degree from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University in 1905, he served an 18-month internship at the municipal New York City Hospital on Welfare Island. He then spent a period of two years in Pathology and Bacteriology at the Russell Sage Laboratory.

Dr. Martland accepted the appointment of the first full-time paid pathologist at the Newark City Hospital in January 1909. On November 16, 1910 he married Myra C. Ferdon and they purchased a house at 180 Clinton Avenue, Newark, which was to be their home until his death in 1954. When World War I broke out, Dr. Martland joined the Bellevue Hospital Unit and as a lieutenant colonel he took charge of a hospital in Vichy, France. He later was awarded a Citation for Exceptionally Meritorious and Conspicuous Service by General John Pershing.

In June 1925 Dr. Martland was chosen to fill the post of Essex County Physician. Immediately, he saw the danger of divided authority in the system that allowed a coroner's jury of laymen to decide causes of sudden death therefore, he set out to establish the medical examiner system in Essex County. He won his fight in the State Legislature and the county government in March 1927, and was appointed Chief Medical Examiner by the Essex County Board of Freeholders. In April 1933, Dr. Martland was named Professor of Forensic Medicine at New York University, a post he held for fifteen years.

Dr. Martland made important contributions in the fields of pathology and forensic medicine. The work that attracted the most attention was his research begun in 1924, on the effects of radioactive material on the human body. Dr. Martland determined that minute traces of radioactivity contained in luminous paint had caused the deaths of watch dial painters employed at the US Radium Corporation in Orange, NJ. The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) credits Dr. Martland's work with having made it possible for atomic development to proceed with comparative safety. At the request of the AEC, Dr. Martland prepared a permanent exhibit on radioactive dangers and precautions which is on display in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In 1916, Dr. Martland alerted dynamite manufacturers to the dangers of occupational poisoning in TNT.

Harrison Stanford Martland, MDIt was Dr. Martland who proved, back in 1928, that "punch drunk" prize fighters were suffering from a brain injury caused by the rupture of blood vessels. He did notable work in phases of cardiac syphilis and in the effects of bullet wounds on the body. Dr. Martland's accomplishments also included the first paper establishing the lethal effects of beryllium poisoning, which led to implementation of regulatory reforms governing the use of beryllium in industrial plants.

Dr. Martland received numerous honors and awards. Nobel Prize winners came to Newark three times to salute him at annual Harrison S. Martland Lectures sponsored by the Essex County Anatomical and Pathological Society. The New York Pathological Association named him its first out-of-state president in 1928. He was President of the Essex County Medical Society in 1920 and of the Academy of Medicine of Northern New Jersey in 1922. In 1943, the Academy of Medicine gave Dr. Martland the Edward J. Ill Award as the outstanding physician and citizen of the county. The Newark City Commission paid tribute to the eminent pathologist when the new city hospital was dedicated the Harrison S. Martland Medical Center on January 24, 1954.

After forty-five years as Newark City Hospital Pathologist and twenty-five years as Essex County Medical Examiner, Dr. Martland retired in November 1953. He died on May 1, 1954 at the age of 71.

PROVENANCE

Dr. Martland's papers were given to the Bergen University Archives on October 3, 1979 by Samuel Berg, MD. Dr. Berg rescued the papers from permanent destruction by removing them from the trash at the old Newark City Hospital. A later addendum (90-30) of seven scrapbooks was donated by Frank J. Tomaino (Forensic Administrator, Office of the State Medical Examiner, Newark) in April 1990. In 1994, Dr. Robert Goode, New Jersey State Medical Examiner, donated another addenda (94-22), which included a collection of reprints and a letter.

SCOPE AND CONTENT NOTE

The Harrison Stanford Martland, MD, Papers span the years 1905-1954. They document Dr. Martland's investigations of occupational health hazards in New Jersey. This collection contains four series including Scrapbooks, Publications, Photographs, and Miscellaneous Papers. Publications are the strongest series in this collection, followed by Scrapbooks.

For further biographical information see:

Berg, Samuel. Harrison Stanford Martland, MD: the story of a physician, a hospital, an era. NY: Vantage, 1978.

SERIES DESCRIPTION

SERIES I: SCRAPBOOKS, 1916-1952. [Accession 79-02, 90-30]
The scrapbooks were assembled by Dr. Martland and include material on the health hazards associated with the industrial use of radium, benzol and beryllium compounds. Included in the books are correspondence, newspaper clippings, x-ray films, publications and reprints, personal notes, medical records, autopsy reports, and some photographs. Six of Dr. Martland's Radium scrapbooks, as well as two AEC scrapbooks, were disbound and conserved under a preservation grant from the NJ Historical Commission.

SERIES II: PUBLICATIONS, 1908-1950. [Accession 79-02, 94-22
The publication series, which is arranged chronologically, includes copies of Dr. Martland's articles published from 1908-1950, as well as requests for reprints of his articles. Article topics include: the toxic effects of cyanide of potassium; TNT, radium, beryllium, and carbon monoxide poisoning; cancer; "punch drunk;" cardiac syphilis; air embolisms; and essential hypertension.

SERIES III: PHOTOGRAPHS, 1905-1947, n. d. [Accession 79-02]
The photographs show Dr. Martland at work and at various conferences and lectures, such as the Newark City Hospital Clinical and Pathological Conferences (1940s), the Essex County Pathological and Anatomical Society's Martland Lectures (1948), and the Sixth Saranac Symposium on Beryllium (1947). Dr. Martland is pictured alone and with colleagues, namely Michael Frunzi, Drs. Powers, Snapper, Libman, Berardinelli, Weber, O' Crowley, and Loewi. In addition there are photos of Dr. Martland's family. This series is arranged in alphabetical order by subject. Negatives are available for some prints.

SERIES IV: MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS, 1927-1954. [Accession 79-02, 94-22]
This series consists of correspondence, certificates, commemorative programs, and newspaper clippings. It is arranged alphabetically by subject. Items document Martland's appointment as Chief Medical Examiner in 1927, US Army appointments, Board qualifications, the Martland Medical Center dedication, the Martland Lectures, and the Saner Case (air embolism).

Of special interest is a 1939 letter from J. Edgar Hoover to Dr. Martland regarding his article in the book, Landmarks in Medicine (See Box 4, Folder 34).


BOX LIST

PC/1-1: SCRAPBOOKS ACCESSION 79-02

Radium I, 1925-1927

During the years 1917-1924 employees of the US Radium Corp. Plant in Orange, NJ applied paint containing small amounts of radium to the dials of watches, clocks, etc. This luminous paint was applied with camel hair brushes that were frequently "pointed" by the painters with the lips. The ingestion of radium later caused the death of over 41 dial painters. Dr. Martland was one of the first scientists to conduct investigations to determine the cause of the dial painters' deaths. This scrapbook contains newspaper articles, correspondence, and reprints of publications related to radium poisoning and Dr. Martland's investigations.

Radium II, 1928

Five women employed as dial painters by the US Radium Corp. from 1917-1922 sued the company for $1,250,000 in 1928. They settled out of court for $10,000 each and an annuity of $600 a year, plus medical expenses. The scrapbook contains correspondence relating to the suit as well as notes, dental x-rays, newspaper clippings, and correspondence relating to the radium poisoning victims. Specific items include Dr. Martland's June 1928 letter of appeal to the Surgeon General requesting a federal investigation of radium poisoning. Correspondents include: Archibald P. Evans, MD and Charles Norris, MD.

Radium III, January 1929 - November 1930

This scrapbook contains correspondence, newspaper clippings, x-ray films and publications related to radium poisoning. Included is a February 19, 1929 letter from the Acting Surgeon General requesting Dr. Martland to be a consultant in industrial hygiene to the US Public Health Service and to serve as a member of an Advisory Committee on the health hazards of radium dial painting.

Radium IV, July 1930-November 1931

This scrapbook contains correspondence from Dr. Martland's colleagues regarding radium poisoning and correspondence from victims of radium poisoning. Also included are newspaper clippings, reprints, and a photograph of Dr. Martland's exhibit illustrating he effects of radium poisoning in the watch dial industry displayed at the American Medical Association's Convention in Philadelphia, 1931. Dr. Martland was awarded a silver medal for this exhibit.

Radium V, October 1931-July 1932

The scrapbook contains correspondence, reprints, newspaper clippings and material relating to Dr. Martland's exhibit on radium poisoning. Also included is material on the controversy over the therapeutic use of radioactive waters.

Radium VI, August 1932-1938

The scrapbook contains correspondence, newspaper clippings and reprints regarding radium poisoning caused by the ingestion of radioactive substances and radioactive waters.

Radium VI, 1941-1944

This scrapbook contains Dr. Martland's notes and photographs on methods of detecting and estimating radioactivity in the human body during life and after death. Methods discussed include the Evans Gamma Ray Detector and Evans Breath Radon Analysis. Also included are Dr. Martland's notes on the examination of the dial painters' children and correspondence with Robley D. Evans.

Radium VIII (Malignancy), 1941-1944

This scrapbook consists of Dr. Martland's re-study if the so-called radium sarcomas. Material consists of notes, photographs, reprints, and correspondence. Also included is a draft paper by Edwin E. Ziegler, MD on the Mutation Theory of Cancer, 1941.

Radium IX, 1939-1944

The increase in aviation during World War II created a sudden demand for luminous dials and instruments, which was met by an expanded dial painting industry. This scrapbook contains materials on Dr. Martland's investigation of dial painting methods used at that time. Included are notes, test results following the examination of dial painters, photographs, correspondence and reprints. Correspondents include Robley D. Evans and John Roach, Deputy Commissioner of Labor, State of NJ.

RA Papers, HSM

This scrapbook contains a list of articles written by Dr. Martland on radium poisoning along with a selection of reprints. The second page of the scrapbook is a list of the watch dial painters who used radium paint and their years of employment.

RA Letters/AEC, 1949-1952

This scrapbook contains correspondence between Dr. Martland, Robley D. Evans, Louis H. Hemplemann and J. C. Aub on their joint paper, "Late Effects of Internally Deposited Radioactive Materials in Man." Also included is correspondence with Shields Warren, MD of the AEC regarding the re-publication of Dr. Martland's papers on radium poisoning and the AEC's Symposium on Radium Poisoning held June 13-16, 1951. In addition, there are various requests for reprints of Dr. Martland's articles.

Atomic Energy Commission, 1945-1946

Included is correspondence at the time of the "A" bomb specifically letters from Dr. Samuel Berg and a letter to Major General Leslie Groves of the War Department Washington, D. C.

Benzol, 1916-1928

This scrapbook contains information on industrial benzol poisoning reported to Dr. Martland as Chief Medical Examiner of Essex County. The material includes medical records, autopsy reports, correspondence, newspaper clippings and journal articles.

Beryllium, 1936, 1944-1948

This scrapbook contains correspondence, autopsy reports, newspaper clippings and various published papers on the hazards arising from the industrial use of beryllium compounds. Specific autopsy reports of victims of beryllium poisoning performed by Dr. Martland include:

Alfred V. Jarman, August 2, 1936
Catherine Duncan, May 8, 1944
Alexander Eckles, Jr., July 10, 1947
Dorothy Burns, August 18, 1947

Corespondents include Leroy V. Garner, MD, E. Ward Thompson, and Frances Perkins. Also included is correspondence regarding Dr. Martland's participation in the Sixth Saranac Symposium on Beryllium Poisoning held September 29 - October 1, 1947.

Heart Syphilis, ca. 1930

This scrapbook contains photographs on the gross pathology of cardiovascular syphilis. The photographs were part of an exhibit prepared by Dr. Martland entitled, "Sudden Death in Syphilis of the Aorta and Heart: Gross Pathology." Researchers should note that this scrapbook is not complete; numerous photographs are missing.

ADDENDUM

PC/1-1: SCRAPBOOKS ACCESSION 90-30

7 Volumes:

Suicide, 1942
Asphyxial Deaths
Homicidal Poisonings
The Fight Game (1 TLS, May 12, 1950 re: Punch Drunk)
Homicide, 1941-1946 (1 TLS, J. Edgar Hoover to HSM, May 6, 1941)
[Cancer, 1946-1948]
[Photographic evidence if handwriting samples pertaining to the death of Ocey Snead]

BOX LIST

PC/1-2: PUBLICATIONS ACCESSION 79-02

BoxFolderContents
11Toxic effects of cyanide of potassium upon the peripheral motor neurons: a clinical and experimental study, 1908.
2Disease of the primary motor neurons causing the clinical picture of acute anterior poliomyelitis: the result of poisoning by cyanide of potassium. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease vol. 5 no. 7, July 1908.
3A case of syphilitic cirrhosis of the spleen, read before NY Pathological Society, March 11, 1908.
4Case of congenital false diaphragmatic hernia. Journal of the American Association, May 15, 1909.
5A tumor of the submaxillary region: a tumor of the ovary. Proceedings of the NY Pathological Society, December 1909, January 1910.
6Purpura. NY Medical Journal, November 18, 1911.
7Advantages of the autopsy and other pathologic anatomic examinations. Journal of the Medical Society of NJ, 1911.
8Report of unusual case, presenting primary, multiple, benign medullary, giant cell bone tumors. Proceedings of NY Pathological Society, November 1915.
9Recent clinical and pathological observations on giant-cell medullary bone tumors. Annals of Surgery, April 1916.
10Tri-Nitro-Toluene poisoning situs inversus. Proceedings of the NY Pathological Society, Oct. - Nov. 1916.
11Trinitrotoluene poisoning. Journal of the American Medical Association, march 17, 1917.
12Aneurysm of the coronary heart. Proceedings of the NY Pathological Society, vol. 17, 1917.
13New growths of the testis. Surgery, Gynecology, and Obstetrics, May 1919.
14Non-surgical duodeno-bilary drainage in diabetes and hypertension cases. Journal of Metabolic Research, vol. 1 no. 3, March 1922.
15Present status of the curability of syphilis. Bulletin Dept. of Health, vol. 6, November 1923.
16Is myxoma of the bladder a pathological entity? Journal of Urology, vol. 11 no. 4, April 1924.
17Some unrecognized dangers in the use and handling of radioactive substance... Journal
18Chemotherapy in Cancer. Proceedings of the NY Pathological Society, 1926.
19Microscopic changes of certain anemias due to radioactivity. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory medicine, Oct. 1926.
20Cardiac Syphilis (Syphilitic Aortitis). Journal of the Medical Society of NJ, 1927.
21The use of a stable colloidal lead in the treatment of cancer. Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 88 no. 12, March 19, 1927.
22Punch Drunk. Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 91, October 13, 1928.
23Erysipelas of the stomach. Archives of Pathology, Nov. 1929.
24Erysipelas of the stomach. Archives of Pathology, Nov. 1929, correspondence.
25Occupational poisoning in manufacture of luminous watch dials. Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 92, 1929.
26Syphilis of the aorta and the heart. American Heart Journal, Oct. 1930.
27Occurrence of malignancy in radioactive persons. American Journal of Cancer vol. 15, 1931.
28Pathology of syphilis, with special reference to luetic aortitis. Bulletin NY Academy of Medicine, vol. 8, 1932.
29Cancer problem as related to laryngology. The Laryngoscope, 1933.
30Carbon monoxide poisoning. Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 103 no. 9, Sept. 1934 (requests for reprints).
21Pueperal infections. American Journal of Surgery, Oct. 1934 (reprint requests).
2Reporting of common and unusual medico-legal cases by physicians and surgeons. American Journal of Surgery, Sept. 1935.
3Dr. Watson and Mr. Sherlock Holmes: lecture to the laity on the art and romance of medicine, 1938.
4Dr. Watson and Mr. Sherlock Holmes in Landmarks in Medicine, correspondence, 1939.
5Association of polycystic disease of the kidneys with congenital aneurysms of the cerebral arteries. May 1938.
6Bone tumors of occupational origin. Occupation and Health: Encyclopedia of Hygiene athology and Social Welfare. Geneva Int'l. Labor Office, 1938.
7Bone tumors of occupational origin. Occupation and Health...correspondence, 1938-1940.
8Spontaneous subarachnid hemorrhage and congenital "Berry" aneurysms of the circle of willis. American Journal of Surgery, 1939. correspondence.
9Radium Poisoning. in a Textbook of Medicine edited by R. L. Cecil. 5th Edition, 1940.
10Radium Poisoning. in a Textbook of Medicine edited by R. L. Cecil. 5th Edition, 1940.
11Static or spontaneous thrombosis of the veins of the lower extremity and pelvis and the fatal pulmonary embolisms following trauma and surgical operations. Surgical Clinics of North America, April 1941, correspondence, 1940.
12Static or spontaneous thrombosis of the veins of the lower extremity and pelvis and the fatal pulmonary embolisms following trauma and surgical operations. Surgical Clinics of North America, vol. 21 no. 2, April 1941.
13Static or spontaneous thrombosis... Surgical Clinics of North America, April 1941.
14Static or spontaneous thrombosis... Surgical Clinics of North America, April 1941, reprint requests.
15Diseases due to physical agents. chapter in Therapeutics of Internal Diseases, edited by G. Blumerm 1941.
16Protection of radium during air raids. Nat'l Bureau of Standards Handbook H38, 1942.
17Adrenal heterotopia, rests and the so-called grawitz tumor. Journal of Urology, vol. 50, 1943.
18Instrumental intestinal trauma during laparotomy. American Journal of Surgery, June 1943.
19Instrumental intestinal trauma during laparotomy. American Journal of Surgery, June 1943.
20Radium poisoning. in a Textbook of Medicine edited by R. L. Cecil, 6th edition, 1943.
21Adrenal heterotopia, rests and the so-called grawitz tumor. Journal of Urology, vol. 50, 1943.
22Fulminating meningococcic infection with bilateral massive adrenal hemorrhage. Archives of Pathology, Feb. 1944.
23Fulminating meningococcic infection with bilateral massive adrenal hemorrhage. Archives of Pathology, Feb. 1944.
24Fulminating meningococcic infection with bilateral massive adrenal hemorrhage. Archives of Pathology, Feb. 1944, reprint requests.
25Importance of titles that accurately reflect the subjects of the articles, letter. Archives of Pathology, vol. 39 no. 2, Feb. 1945.
31Air embolism: fatal air embolism due to powder insufflators used in gynecological treatments. American Journal of Surgery, May 1945.
2Air embolism: fatal air embolism due to powder insufflators used in gynecological treatments. American Journal of Surgery, May 1945, film negatives.
3Air embolism: fatal air embolism due to powder insufflators used in gynecological treatments. American Journal of Surgery, May 1945, reprint requests.
4Air embolism with special reference to its surgical importance. American Journal of Surgery, June 3, 1945.
5Air embolism with special reference to its surgical importance. American Journal of Surgery, June 3, 1945, film negatives.
6Death from air embolism following insufflation during pregnancy. Journal of the American Medical Association, November 24, 1945.
7Massive left auricle with special reference to its etiology and mechanism. American Heart Journal, vol. 31 no. 4, April 1946.
8Pathologic changes resulting from administration of streptomycin. Archives of Pathology, Dec. 1946.
9Radium poisoning. in a Textbook of Medicine edited by R. L. Cecil, 7th edition, 1947.
10Radium poisoning. in a Textbook of Medicine edited by R. L. Cecil, 7th edition,1947.
11Occupational Berylium poisoning in New Jersey. Journal of the Medical Society of NJ. vol. 45, January 1948.
12Occupational Berylium poisoning in New Jersey. Journal of the Medical Society of NJ. vol. 45, January 1948, reprint requests.
13Essential hypertension: clinical and pathologic considerations. Postgraduate medicine, July 1949.
14Treatment of essential hypertension. Postgraduate medicine, vol. 6, no. 2, August 1949.
15Placental barrier in carbon monoxide, barbiturate and radium poisoning: some original observations in humans. American Journal of Surgery, September 1950.
16Agranuloctosis after antihistaminic therapy. Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 143, no. 8, June 24, 1950.
17Collection of reprints on radium poisoning, 1925-1939. Oak Ridge, TN: Tech Info Services, AEC, 1951. [94-22]
18The late efforts of internally-deposited radioactive materials in man. Reprint, Medicine vol. 31, no. 3, Sept. 1952.
PC/1-3: PHOTOGRAPHS ACCESSION 79-02
BoxFolderContents
41Clinical and Pathological Conferences, Newark City Hospital, ca. 1940's
2Clinical and Pathological Conferences, Newark City Hospital, ca. 1940's
3Clinical and Pathological Conferences, Newark City Hospital, ca. 1940's
4Martland, Harrison S.
5Martland, Harrison S.
6Martland, Harrison S.
7Martland, Harrison S., 1917.
8Martland and his wife Myra
9Martland performing an autopsy
10Martland Lectures, Essex County Pathological and Anatomical Society, December 1948
11Martland Lectures, Essex County Pathological and Anatomical Society, December 1948
12Martland lecturing on "Punch Drunk"
13Martland, Dr. Powers and Michael Frunzi, 1938
14Martland, Dr. Snapper, Dr. Libman and Dr. Berardinelli
15Martland, Dr. Weber, Dr. O' Crowley and Dr. Loewi, 1938
16Martland, William H., 1916 (Harrison Martland's father)
17Nagasaki Radioactive Fallout Survey, 1945 (negatives available)
18Painting that hung in Dr. Martland's office
19Residents and Interns, Metropolitan Hospital, Welfare Island, NYC, 1905 (includes Dr. Martland)
20Sixth Saranac Symposium, Beryllium, October 1947
21Swearing-in Ceremony, Martland as Chief Medical Examiner, 1947
PC/1-4: MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS ACCESSION 79-02
BoxFolderContents
422American Museum of Atomic Energy, Oak Ridge, 1949
23Banquet, Martland's Appointment as Chief Medical Examiner, May 10, 1927.
24Certificate of Appointment, U. S. Army, 1929, 1935, 1940
25Certificate of Qualification, American Board of Pathology, June 9, 1940
26Correspondence with Samuel Berg, 1943 and 1953
27Dedication Ceremony, H. S. Martland Medical Center, 1/24/54
28Dedication Ceremony, H. S. Martland Medical Center, 1/24/54
29Martland Lectures, Essex County Pathological & Anatomical Society, 1935
30Martland Lectures, Essex County Pathological & Anatomical Society, 1947-1949
31NJ Neuro-Psychiatric Association, 1948
32Newspaper clippings re: Harrison S. Martland
33Sander Case (Air Embolism), 1950
34TLS, Letter from J. Edgar Hoover, March 29, 1939 TLS, Letter from Martland to Salvatore A. Bontempo, Nov. 29, 1953, 2 pp. [94-22]

Sarah A. Hull;
4/99

Page Revised: 3/2/01

For reference service and information contact:

Robert Vietrogoski
Special Collections
bob.vietrogoski@rutgers.edu
(973) 972-7830
FAX (973) 972-7474

 
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